François Englert, (born November 6, 1932, Etterbeek, Belgium), Belgian physicist who was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics for proposing the existence of the Higgs field, which endows all elementary particles with mass through its interactions with them. He shared the prize with British physicist Peter Higgs, who hypothesized that the field had a carrier particle, later called the Higgs boson.
Englert received degrees in electromechanical engineering (1955) and physics (1958) from the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Free University of Brussels; ULB) before receiving a doctorate in physics from ULB in 1959. He was a research associate (1959–60) and an assistant professor (1960–61) in physics at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. There he began a collaboration with Belgian physicist Robert Brout. Englert returned to ULB in 1961, becoming a professor there in 1964. With Brout he was codirector of the theoretical physics group at ULB from 1980 to 1998, when he became a professor emeritus. He also held visiting professorships at Tel Aviv University from 1984 and at Chapman University in Orange, California, from 2011.
Michael Faraday (L) English physicist and chemist (electromagnetism) and John Frederic Daniell (R) British chemist and meteorologist who invented the Daniell cell.
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In 1964 Englert and Brout wrote a paper, “Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons,” describing how particles can acquire mass through the interaction with a field that has a nonzero value (later called the Higgs mechanism). That same year Higgs later wrote two papers, one of which mentioned the existence of a boson associated with the field, and American physicists Gerald Guralnik and Carl Hagen and British physicist Tom Kibble also independently discovered the Higgs mechanism.
The ideas of these physicists were later incorporated into what became known as electroweak theory to describe the origin of particle masses. After the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983, the only remaining part of electroweak theory that needed confirmation was the Higgs field and its boson. Particle physicists searched for the particle for decades, and in July 2012 scientists at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced, with Englert and Higgs in attendance, that they had detected an interesting signal that was likely from a Higgs boson with a mass of 125–126 giga-electron volts (GeV; billion electron volts). Definitive confirmation that the particle was the Higgs boson was announced in March 2013.
Englert received many honours for his work, including the Wolf Prize in physics (2004, shared with Brout and Higgs) and the J.J. Sakurai Prize (2010, shared with Brout, Higgs, Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble).